Sundarbans of Bangladesh great rich UNESCO World heritage

Last Updated on March 1, 2021

Have you planned to travel to the Sundarbans of Bangladesh? Find Bangladesh enriched with so many natural beauty and resources. Sundarbans is one of them. Escape in deep nature coming to the Sundarbans.

The Bangla word “Ban” has been defined as a forest. The name “Sundarban” may occur by the name of a Sundari tree. The tree is a common plant of the wood.

Sundarbans of Bangladesh is a vast forest situated on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. This forest remains not only in Bangladesh but also in India.

You will see Sundarbans located in both Bangladesh and West Bengal of Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, you can access this forest through Khulna and Mongla.

It is full of natural beauty. It is covering with a crisscrossed network of lakes or rivers. The forest and the ecological systems make it one of the best natural beauties in Bangladesh.

It has a mangrove forest, spotted deer, Godzilla, wild bears, Royal Bengal Tiger, monkey, etc. The vivid descriptions of Sundarbans of Bangladesh are giving below. Let us have a read.

 

Sundarbans of Bangladesh Famous mangrove forest

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Famous mangrove forest

Bangladesh is a country of natural beauty. Sundarbans is one of the best tourist spots in this Country. What beauty and species do you find in Sundarbans of Bangladesh? Readout this article to know all about Sundarbans.

Sundarbans of Bangladesh is well-known for many species of trees and wild creatures. Royal Bengal Tiger is the king of animals in this jungle. Royal Bengal Tiger is also a symbol of Bangladesh’s national animal.

The total area of Sundarbans is covering up to 3,860 square miles. The vast area includes both land and water. This forest covers a large area with so many natural elements and wild animals.

It achieved the honor of World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO. There are three non-contiguous wildlife sanctuaries. These sanctuaries portion of the Sundarbans.

The sanctuaries and areas are joining together. Three shelters are naming as

  • Sundarbans National park
  • Sundarbans West
  • Sundarbans south and East

 

These joints are familiar as a World Heritage Site in 1997. UNESCO has also demarcated the whole area of Sundarbans as a biosphere reserve.

The large area of Sundarbans is a forest of paradise. All the natural beauties of this forest give you recreation also. It is also a delta Mangrove forest.

The area is the confluence of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal.

 

Why People Call It Mangrove Forest

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Call It Mangrove Forest

Sundarbans of Bangladesh has the name “Mangrove Forest.”Mangrove is a name of a biological ecosystem. It has various interactions with other ecosystems.

There is no specific reason to call the forest a Mangrove forest. But you can specify it by the unique name of a Sundarbans. Mangrove forest may have derived from the “Sundari” or “Sundri.”

The rural people call the tree by the name of a mangrove species. Its scientific name is Heritiera fomes.

Moreover, the soil of the Sundarbans has a huge combination of salt. Every plant here has to adapt to the saline environment.

The terrain of the Sundarbans is composed of recent and erosive sediments of the Himalayas. The topography of the Sundarbans has accelerated due to the tides of the sea.

Its lower layers were forming in the Quaternary Period. The soil mixture was sand, salt, sea salt, and clay. Geologists have found a slight slope to the southeast in the geology here.

The tidal wave is the main reason for the saline environment and waterlogging of the Sundarbans. The PH of the Sundarbans soil is 5.3 to 7.0.

It can seem that the amount of alkali in it is more.

 

Let’s take a look at the number of inorganic elements in the soil of the Sundarbans.

Inorganic Elements Amounts( meq/ milli-equivalents)
1)Sodium 5.7-29.8 meq
2) Potassium 0.3-1.3 meq
3) Calcium 5.7-28.8 meq

 

Its organic matter content is 4 to 10 percent. And, that is why the Sundarbans is called mangrove forest.

 

The Historical Background of Sundarbans of Bangladesh

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Historical Sundarbans of Bangladesh

You can trace the history of Sundarbans back to 200-300 AD. The record had begun by a ruined city. It was founded at Chand Sadagar in the Baghmara Forest Block.

The Mughal Emperor leased the forest during the Mughal period. Many people took refuge in the Sundarbans. They wanted to escape from the armies of Emperor Akbar. Tigers had injured many.

In the early 16th to 17th century, Portuguese pirates, salt smugglers, and dacoits seized their houses. The evidence was to trace from the ruins at “Netidhopani” and other scattered places in Sundarbans.

The area of Sundarbans was first to map of a Persian surveyor-general in 1769. Then, the Mughal Emperor Alamgir (2) obtained the proprietary rights from the British colonists.

In 1757, The East India Company had recognized the place. Then the British colonial people established the province of Bengal. Afterward, this forest tract’s systematic management started in 1860.

The first Forest Management Division occurred upon the Sundarbans in 1869. In 1875-76 Sundarbans regional officer declared it as a reserved forest under the forest act.

Later in 1879, the authorities of this forest brought it under administrative activities. And they established a headquarters in Khulna also.

The authorities adopted the first forest management plan for the Sundarbans during 1993-96. In 1911, Sundarbans renamed the trust of the wasteland. Thus the journey of Sundarbans began.

 

Where is The Sundarbans Located?

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Sundarbans Located

Get the Sundarbans of Bangladesh located on the shores of the Bay of Bengal. It is a vast forest. You will see it situated in three combined river basins.

It is a vast delta area consisting of the Padma Meghna and the Brahmaputra. The Sundarbans extends to Khulna, Satkhira, and Bagerhat in Bangladesh.

On the other hand, it has spread to North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas of the Indian state of West Bengal. The total area of the Sundarbans is 10,000 sq km. Of this, Bangladesh has 6,017 sq km. The rest is in India.

The Sundarbans is a forest surrounded by a network of ocean currents, mudflats, and mangrove forests. 184 sq km covers by rivers, creeks, beels, and waterlogged areas. That indicates 31.1 percent of the total Sunbarbans area.

 

Which Animals you will find in Sundarbans of Bangladesh

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Animals in Sundarbans

The Sundarbans of Bangladesh provides a unique ecosystem. It also has a rich wildlife habitat. According to the 2011-15 tiger census in both Bangladesh and India, the forest has about 180 tigers.

Sundarbans have also belonged to many unknown species, including small fish, crabs, shrimps, and other crustaceans. They are adapting to feed and shelter.

Again, it will reproduce among the tangled mass of roots known as pneumatophores. It grows upward from the anaerobic mud to supply oxygen.

A large study of India identified Sundarbans enriched with 270 birds, 42 species of mammals, 35 reptiles, and 8 amphibian species.  So let us look at a large amount of fauna in Bangladesh in Sundarbans.

Mammals of Sundarbans:

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Sundarbans has a supreme reputation for Royal Bengal Tiger. Get the scientific name of a tiger is Panthera Tigris. Also, this forest has many other mammals. These are Jungle cats, Chital deer, Indian Muntjac, Wild boar, Rhesus macaque, etc.

It is a record that there are 180 Bengal tigers and about 30,000 spotted deers available in that area. Every day the tigers attack the native people. Human deaths range from 30 to 100 per year in that area.

Avifauna of Sundarbans:

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Sundarban is a beast of nature. We not only see the mammals but also know the avifauna here. There are about 286 species available in that area.

The fascinating bird of Sundarbans is brown winged kingfishers. Learn the scientific name of this bird is Pelargopsis Amauroptera. You will find lesser adjutants, masked finfoots, etc.

Again, there is also having a large number of beautiful birds. These are ospreys, white-bellied sea eagles, open billed strokes, black-headed ibis, water hens, coots, etc.

The most popular birds in this area are green pigeons, Caspian terns, grey herons, wood sandpipers, golden plovers, white-eyed pochards, etc.

Aquafauna of Sundarbans:

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Crocodile of Sundarbans

The large area of Sundarbans covers with so many aqua fauna of species. This forest is a shelter house of,

  • Olive ridley turtle;
  • Green Turtle;
  • Estuarine Crocodile;
  • Russell’s Viper;
  • Green Vine Snake;
  • Rat snake;
  • Shelled Turtle;
  • Pea-cock Softshell Turtle;
  • Yellow monitor;
  • Asian Monitor, etc.

 

The fascinating scenes you will enjoy here is a saltwater crocodile. A saltwater crocodile was breeding in the center of the river.

Besides these, you there numerous kinds of fishes, dolphins, migrant water birds. These are the symbols of the ultimate beauty of Sundarbans.

But, the fauna of Bangladesh has diminished in recent times. The Government restricts Sundarbans from this decline.

The forestry generals have taken a strong law for saving up the tigers and other wild creatures of Sundarbans. Some species had been protected by legislation, notably by the Bangladesh wildlife in 1973.

 

Sundarbans National Park

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Sundarbans National Park

Sundarbans National park is a national eco-park. It is a reserving area for tigers and a biosphere reserve in West Bengal in India.

Sundarbans national park is part of it, situated in the Ganges Delta. The total area is about 1330.10 sq. kilometer.

The area was the tiger reserve area in 1973. And afterward, this area was a wildlife sanctuary in 1977.

Next, on 4th may, 1984, the authority declared it as a national park. Since 2019, the forest authority has designated this park as a Ramsar site.

The coastal area of Sundarbans eco-park had a tidal observation under a range officer’s supervision. Around two to three experienced workers managed anti-poaching camps of the park.

The only communication system of this park is a boat. You can travel the whole area by boat.

West Bengal Tourist Development Corporation operates the local boats or vessels of this park. The name of these tourist boats is fascinating to hear. These are M.V. Chitrarekha and M.V. Sarbajaya.

You see too many wild animals and species in that region. The park has some endangered species that lives in Sundarbans, including on

  • Royal Bengal Tiger
  • Saltwater Crocodile
  • River terrapin
  • Ganges river dolphin
  • Estuarine crocodiles
  • Chameleons
  • Monitor lizards
  • Turtles
  • Dog-faced water snakes
  • Red-tailed Bamboo pit Viper, etc.

 

The Other Tourist Spots of Sundarbans

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The national park is the first tourist spot of Sundarbans of Bangladesh. It is the most attractive site of Sundarbans. The other tourist spots of Sundarbans are giving below:

  • Kotka Beach.
  • Karamjol
  • Hiron Point.
  • Dubler Char islands.
  • Tikona islands.

 

Kotka Beach in Sundarbans

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Kotka Beach

Kotka Beach is one of the fantastic tourist sites in Sundarbans. Katka is a base spot for safaris and well-spots for enjoying bird-chirping and tigers roaming.

Katka beach is an innovative place for many rare and majestic animals. At Katka, you can see many precious wild animals, from tigers to deers. The fascinating scenes of jungle monkeys and birds are available on this beach.

The large expanses of grassy meadows running from Kotka beach to Kachi kali (tiger spots) is ideal. If you are an adventurous tourist, you shouldn’t miss it anymore.

Karamjol of Sundarbans

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Karamjol

Karmajol is the second tourist spot of Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Every day about thousands of visitors makes their way to visit this place. Karmajol is also known as a deer-breeding center.

Only the Karmajol of Sundarbans has granted the forestry permission to visit the breathtaking wildlife first. Before entering the forest, you have to take comfortable shoes, water, a medical kit, and anti-diarrhea medication for protection.

Visitors will feast their eyes on a great range of mammals, insects, bird species, reptiles, and fishes. The wildlife enthusiasts can enjoy viewing,

  • Gangetic river dolphins,
  • saltwater crocodiles,
  • Rainforest deers,
  • Ducks,
  • Moths,
  • Snakes,
  • Royal Bengal Tigers, etc.

 

In a word, karmajol is the breathtaking natural beauty of Sundarban. Sundarban’s wildlife sanctuary awaits the mysterious traveler.

Hiron Point Sundarbans

Hiron point is mainly prominent for its green natural beauty. You will also enjoy connate splendor here. It is a graceful spot known as Nilkamal.

It is a world-spreading place for bird-watchers and nature lovers.

Dublar Char Islands Sundarbans

Dubler char is the wonder of most islands of tidal halophytic mangrove forest. It is a beautiful island. The island is famous for its picturesque scenes. It is the biggest single block for fishing.

The rural fishermen are used to fishing here. The islands were abundant with fish fauna. You can experience firsthand fishing on these islands.

No doubt, the sun-setting scenery of these islands is so heart-touching and magnificent. Anyone can find natural refreshment here. The river Shibsha is covering the western part of this island.

The wavy flow of this river can snatches away the attention of the visitors. Anyone can enjoy a casual walk around the islands. It will provide you the chance to spot many wild species.

You’re filled with joy to see them grazing deer on that island.

Tikona Island of Sundarbans

Tikona islands are the other fascinating tourist spots of Sundarbans of Bangladesh. It will remove your monotony. These islands also merged with the wild beauty of forests. It is a symbol of nature’s blessings.

 

Natural Resources of Sundarbans

Natural Resources of Sundarbans
Resources of Sundarbans

Sundarban’s of Bangladesh is an enrichment of mangrove plants, including trees, shrubs, grasses, epiphytes, and lianas.

Most of the trees of this forest have pneumatophores. Pneumatophores will help them with their aerial respiration.

The most prominent species you will find there is a Sundri tree (Heritiera fomes) and Gewa ( Excoecaria agallocha).

There are 334 species under 245 genres. The scientists had recorded these on Prain in 1903. Of these, 10-17% are pteridophytes, 8-87% monocotyledons, and the rest are dicotyledons.

All the species of this forest become so lively, fresh, evergreen, and dwarfs. All the plants are growing gregariously without leaving any gaps on the floor.

In Sundarbans, you will also find the saltwater forest. It is the fascinating site of this forest. This is a saltwater forest situated in the south-western parts.

The plants that are growing in this area have to adapt to survive. You will see respiratory roots in some plants.

 

The Economic Importance of Sundarbans

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Economic Importance

Sundarbans of Bangladesh has a lot of economic assets. It helps to broaden economic developments. It also helps us to earn foreign exchanges.

The main economical Providence of Sundarbans is giving below:

  • Sundarbans is a symbol of eco-tourism sites. Every year thousands of tourists come here to visit.
  • The forest protecting the Country from coastal erosion, tsunami, etc.
  • The plants and species of this forest are a good source of wooden furniture.
  • The native people earn their livelihood from these forests by collecting honey, timber, and leaves, etc.
  • Bangladesh has obtained 5th position for importing fish productions. The fisheries sector contributes about 3-5% of economic GDP.
  • Sundarbans River has supplied a large number of fishes. Sundarban’s shrimp is called the white gold of Bangladesh.

 

How Will You Go There?

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Go Sundarbans

Suppose you are a native visitor of Bangladesh. It is quite easy for you to visit the Sundarban trips.

In that case, I will divide the tourist guide into two sections. One for native visitors and the other is Foreigners. Take a look to get some ideas.

Native visitors:

If you are a native visitor, you have to travel there by air, road or a streamer. If you want to travel Sundarbans by bus, collect Dhaka-Khulna tickets.

By airplane, you can visit the Sundarbans, which is not so far away. But, you have to pay more.

Again, if you want to travel by a streamer, you have to collect a ticket from Sadarghat. You can also make a visit to a Sundarbans by hiring a travel package.

Foreign visitors:

If you are a foreign visitor, you would have to hire an air ticket from International Shahjalal Airport. Or, if you land from airports, you can hire a Dhaka-Khulna bus ticket.

Choose a bus stand that provides service to Sundarban trips. You will also find numerous packages for Sundarbans trips.

You can collect them one if you don’t want to make your trip so complicated. After reaching the Sundarbans, you would have to hire a boat to enjoy your trip mostly.

 

FAQ: For Sundarbans of Bangladesh

There are several kinds of fascinating sites, including in this forest. Kotka and Kochikhali are the most prominent of them.

The area of Sundarbans is so fascinating with a large number of wild species and plants. You didn't find any malaria or other epidemic.

You have to start your tour from Any country to Bangladesh. Then hire a bus, car, or package for a Sundarbans trip to Dhaka.

There has never been one. We do not see any chances of it.

You have to carry warm clothes in winter. For summer, you can choose any clothes.

Last word about Sundarbans

Sundarbans of Bangladesh in the lungs of Bangladesh. The prominent sites of these places are outstanding. It is not comparable with any place all over the world.

Although it is lying in the coastal zone, it helps the Country protect from floods, cyclones, etc. It is one of the largest mangrove forests in Bangladesh. Sundarbans Natural gives us oxygen to breathe in.

The forest gives honey to relish, fish to savor, and fuelwood to burn. The most picturesque spots of this forest will snatch away your monotony.

The famous writer name “William Wordsworth” has well said in his poem “Tintern Abbey” that,

“With Tranquil restoration: – feelings too.

Of unremembered pleasure: such, perhaps,

As have no slight or trivial influence.”

 

As the poet wants to get rid of his bitter experience by visiting the sites of nature, Sundarbans has also influenced its tourists. They enjoy the best tranquility inside nature.

 

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