Last Updated on March 1, 2021
Have you planned to visit Khulna? Do you not know anything about this city? If so, we are here to provide all the information about this river port city.
Anyway, Khulna is another important city of Bangladesh’s divisions. The gateway city of Sundarbans is a dream destination for many travelers. Some feel the escape of deep forest after coming here.
It is in 3rd position among the largest Divisions in Bangladesh. Khulna, the city of UNESCO world heritage, is the core city of Khulna division. It is a calm and quiet city with natural beauty. The town’s historical background and natural attractions invoke all to come here.
This city is famous for its tourist attractions. There are many places to visit here. You never feel bored traveling there. The communication system is also updated and affordable.
But, you need all the A to Z information before going there. I hope you don’t want to make your trip irritable instead of comfortable. So, this piece of writing will guide you in the proper way to the city. Let’s sink into the topic. Take an idea about the whole Khulna Division.
Khulna: The city of innate beauty
You will find all wind of knowledge about the Division from here. Must read the whole part of this writing and ease all your anxiety.
History: The ancient story of the city
Khulna is able to fulfill your historical taste. It is an ancient city in a historical sense. This one was a part of Samatata, and its former name is Jalalabad.
In the 12 century, Khulna became a part of the Sena Empire. It also became under Bengal’s Bagri Division during the Kingship of Ballala Sena.
The Muslim rule began in the 14th century by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah. He arrived in this city as the first Muslim ruler. Muslims’ encampment increased during the time of his reign. Later, Muslim structures, including mosques and shrines, were built at the time of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah.
Saint Khan Jahan Ali was also an important Muslim figure in Khulna. He acquired jageer from the Gauda king. Saint Ali practiced full right of autonomy until he died in 1459.
The city became part of the Bengal sultanate after the death of Saint Ali. Next, Vikramaditya ruled over it in the 16th century. Then Mansingh, the general of the Mughal dynasty, defeated Vikramaditya.
More to know Autonomous nawabs of Bengal ruled the city until 1793. In 1842, the town went under Jessore Districts. In 1882, it changed into the Headquarter of the Khulna Division. Khulna city became Pouroshava in 1884 and Municipal Corporation in 1984.
During the Bangladesh Liberation struggle, the Pakistani Army established the 314th ad hoc brigade here. They built it to control Khulna. Otherwise, this area was under sector eight during the liberation war.
Land: The southern part of the country
Khulna Division covers about 21643.30 square kilometers of land. The city has Natore, Rajshahi, Pabna in the north. you see Faridpur, Gopalgonj, Rajbari, Barguna, and Pirojpur east side of the town. The Bay of Bengal is on the south of the city and Indian West Bengal on the west.
Sundarbans covers over the three districts of Khulna Division. Find these named Satkhira, Bagerhat, and Khulna District. The region also has various islands in the Bay of Bengal.
Mayur River bounds the metropolitan area from the western side. Madhumati, kopotakkho, and Bhairab River are the important rivers in this city.
Plant and animal: The area of luxuriant vegetation
Bangladesh occupies a tiny part of the forest with four vegetation areas. These are:
- The eastern zone
- Central zone
- Northwest zone
- Southern zone.
Khulna remains in the southern zone of vegetation. This zone includes the Bay of Bengal with Sundarbans. It occupies 51% of the total vegetation of Bangladesh. Sundarbans, the main forest of Bangladesh, contains vast wetlands. You will get the home of different plants and trees in these wetlands.
Sundarban is rich with distinctive mangroves of this area. Most of the mangrove trees have pneumatophores to sustain. Almost all of them are evergreen, shrubby, and dwarf. Some mangroves of this area have commercial value. The valuable mangrove includes Sudari, Goran, Gewa, etc. Gewa is the main component of making newsprint.
Another vital tree in Sundarban, is Nipa Palm or Gol pata. It is also a profitable economic plant. Khulna is the only place where you will see golpata.
Other varieties of plants in Sundarban are grasses, shrubs, lianas, and epiphytes.
The region hosts many animals for the areas of Sundarbans. In Sundarbans, you will find 50 mammalian species. There are about 50 reptile spices and eight amphibian spices. About 320 species of migratory and inland birds are chirping here.
Sundarbans is famous for Royal Bengal Tiger. Other important animals are:
- Jungle cat
- Leopard cat
- Wild boar
- Sea snakes
- Green frog etc
People: The attitude and lifestyle
The city is a serene area inhabited by 1.2 million people. Most of the people are Bengalis. Citizens of other parts of Bangladesh call them Khulnaiya.
Its population includes the people of neighboring districts. It also composes the people from Faridpur and Barisal Division. The place is also the home of Biharis.
Like other parts of Bangladesh, people simple in nature. They welcome guests with greetings. Don’t treat them harmful to foreigners or other visitors. Instead, they are ready to guide them. They show their highest hospitality to visitors.
A large number of people in this city are poor. They occupy the low- income level. In 2005 a center for urban studies estimated that 19.5% of the town’s population lives at a low-income level in the area.
Anyway, visit the town and come across the people.
Most of the tribes of Bangladesh live in the northeast and southern regions of Bangladesh. This Division is also home to a few ethnic people.
The Munda community is one of them. Find them in coastal areas. They reside most in the two districts of this Division. The Munda groups live in the southernmost villages of these districts. One can find them also near and inside Sundarbans. Most of them are day laborers in the profession.
Munda people believe that they are the origin of Ranchi (Jharkhand, India). The Munda tribes arrived in this area as a day laborer during British rule. They helped the landowners to make the forest cultivable. These people also claim themselves as the first settlers in that part of the Khulna Division.
Another ethnic minority of this division is Buno. Like Bede and Romani, they are gypsy people. The Buno do not stay in one place for a long time. They move village to village.
These people keep animals with them. The Buno tribes are animist. At present many of them have converted to Christianity and Hinduism. Though the Buno has their own language, they can speak Bengali.
In Khulna, there are Biharis in significant numbers. The Biharis are Muslim in religion.
Language: The city of different languages
Being a Division of Bangladesh, Khulna people speak in Bengali. Residents speak Bengali as it is their state language. Many people also communicate in regional language and Bengali dialects. Some minorities talk in Urdu. Most of them are ancestors of eastern Indian Muslims and refugees of East Pakistan.
People use mixed language from Urdu with Bengali, English, Hindi, and Bhojpuri.They also use English as a business language. People use Munda, Domari, Romani, Telegu, Gujrati, Marwari, and other minor languages.
Religion: The study of faith
You can find people of various religions in Khulna Division. But the major religion of them is Islam. About 80.12% of residents of this are Muslims.
The percentages of other religions are as follows:
- Hinduism (19.11%)
- Christianity (0.67%)
- Buddhism (04%)
- Others (0.06%)
Some ethnic communities follow animism faith. The Sixty Domed Mosque is a famous mosque for Muslims of this area. It is also renowned throughout the country, established during the Sultanate period.
Do you want to explore Hindu Mandir? There are many famous Hindu temples in this city. Some important of them are:
- Jagodhatri Mandir
- Kali Temple
- Bhurkunda Ram Mandir
- Sri Rup Santan Smriti Tirtha temple.
- Jeshoreshwari kali Temple etc.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of this place is one of the notable churches for Christians. It was established on 3 January 1952.
Demographic Trends: The study of inhabitants
This point is popular to learn because it forces the changes distinctiveness of the inhabitants over time.
The general features of demographic trends:
- Geographical area
- Income level
- Educational attainment
- Connubial status
The population of the Khulna Division is about 15687759. Among them, 12865638 crowds live in rural areas and 229200 in urban areas. The density of the people is 700 per square kilometer. The gender ratio is 51.05% male and 48.95% female.
Most of the people of this Division are Muslims. Second one is Hindu.
Trade: The second port area of Bangladesh
Khulna is considered the third-largest economic center in Bangladesh. The city has various types of light and heavy industries on the north of the port of Mongla. The primary source of economy is jute, fish, and seafood packaging.
It also depends on sugar milling, power generation, chemicals, and shipbuilding. There are also many branches of some national companies. Export processing zone is available here, which has engaged foreign investment.
Furthermore, the city is a place of shrimp farming. For this, people call Khulna as Silver city. The area is also well known for fish, seafood, coconuts, and catfish. Bangladesh acquires foreign exchanges by exporting them.
Khulna is known as an industrial city. The essential companies that play a vital role in the trade of the area are:
- Khulna Shipyard
- Bangladesh oxygen company
- Star Jute Mills
- Platinum Jubilee Mills
The Mongla port of this city is another important place of trading. Now, in a year, 400 ships lodge at the port. The port generates about 3 million MT of export and import.
Transportation: The city’s communication system
Don’t think much about the transport of Khulna Division. Make a plan to visit here without any hesitation.
Khulna has a strong communication network with other parts of Bangladesh. In the last few years, the government has brought major improvements in the country’s transportation system.
Anyway, there are three modes of transport in the town. These three modes connect the city with other cities of Bangladesh.
Khulna has connections with other portions of the country by the N7 highway. The Westside Khulna district and Satkhira network with R760. The major road is Khulna City Bypass.
You can get many nationwide bus services here. Most of them provide private services. The main bus terminal is Sonadanga Bus Terminal.
Khulna Railway Station is the Principle station of Khulna city. The international train runs from here to Kolkata, named Badhon Express. There are also six intercity trains operated by Bangladesh Railway.
Air transports are also available here for a comfortable journey. Jessore Airport and Khan Jahan Ali Airport serve that purpose. Bangladesh Biman Airline and other private airlines have routine flights between Dhaka and Jessore. Air condition buses are available from Airport to the city.
Many lunches and cargo services are available from Khulna to bring passengers and goods. You can get Rocket steamers from here to Dhaka. You need a ticket for bookings. For this, you have to go to the BIWTC office of Rocket Ghat.
Cycle-Rickshaw is a popular method of transport for short trips in Khulna. Auto-rickshaws are common to go from one corner to another in the city. Nagar Paribahan Buses operates regular service with stops in different places of this region.
Government and Society: Political activities of the city
Khulna became a division with ten districts in 1960. The area got independent on 17 December 1971. The districts have 59 sub-districts or Upazilas. Find the central city with nine Upazilas and eight metropolitan thanas.
Now, Khulna city is the divisional headquarter and also serves as district headquarter. Khulna City Corporation was built in 1990. This city corporation is a self-governing structure and LGRD Ministry of Government.
Khulna City Corporation works with some departments such as
- Health department
- Civil works department
- Revenue section
- Road light section
- Solid waste management etc.
Constitutional framework: Basic performance of the government
The constitutional framework defines the primary, civil, and political rights of the inhabitants. In Khulna, it works under the political form of government. This system distributes power among various sectors of government
The constitutions of Khulna guarantees to provide equal rights and equality to the people. The government maintains the constitutional framework by the City Corporation and local government.
Khulna City Corporation works to make sure equality, rights, and religious freedom for the people. It also ensures the justice and minority rights of the people.
Local government: The representative of the people
Mainly local government is the organization of local areas with local representatives. The people of particular areas elect them as their spokespersons. In rural or urban areas, the local government serves each person of the area. It takes care of all types of facilities for people. Ward Councilor is an example of local government.
In Khulna, there are nine Upazilas and two Puoroshavas. The union consists of 198 Haats and Bazars. The local government works with the country government.
Here are some principle services that local government maintains:
- Local roads and infrastructure
- Water and sewerage
- Waste collection
- Park and pools maintenance
- Local laws
- Animal management
- Complaints about neighbors
- Community facilities
Justice: Legal system of the city
Justice refers to the concept of moral value with the administration of the law. Justice depends on the following categories:
- Natural law
All people have an equal right to get proper justice. They have the right to get a fair judgment from the system of that area.
Now, the Khulna Metropolitan court manages all the illegal and criminal offenses throughout the metropolitan city. It deals with law and order and adjusts the traffic flow in the metro city area. Magistrate court resolves the legal issues of the city.
Cultural Life: The way of living
Culture is the way of life. Khulna’s people lead to diverse cultural lives. This place is a religiously diverse and important for harmony and mutual respect.
This city has cultural, economic, and linguistic differences. The inhabitants of Khulna celebrate all kinds of festivals and events. They celebrate a birthday, marriage day, religious festivals, national days, and Bengali New year.
Furthermore, this city is rich in folk songs. Enjoy Jari, Sari, Kirton, Halui gan, Gajir gan, etc. from here. Snake charmers music is another notable folk song in this area. They show games and sing songs to earn money. Many theatre groups perform Dramas.
Folk sports and games are still prevailing in this area. It includes –
- Horse race
- Lathi Khela
- Jor Bijor
- Bagh Bandi
- Gollachut, etc.
Daily life and Social Custom: Lifestyle of the inhabitants
Are you eager to know the lifestyle of the Khulna people? This part of writing will fulfill your enthusiasm. It will provide you with a clear idea about them.
The inhabitants of Khulna are religious in character. They respect each other. People lead very simple and domestic lives. This region produces a vast amount of rice in Bangladesh. For this, most of the citizens are dependent on agriculture.
People live on farming. Villagers like to lead peaceful lives. Farmers sing songs at the time of harvesting. Fish cultivation is another major occupation of the Khulna people. They earn their livelihood by farming and exporting shrimp. So, the area is called the White Golden City.
In rural areas near Sundarbans, people are involved in honey collecting and woodcutting. Some Snake charmers live near Sundarbans.
Urban people are related to private and government Jobs. Some are engaged with Business.
Education The learning system of the city
Khulna has an advanced education system. Education is essential to the development of the city. Feel happy that the literacy rate is 59.1% of this Division. There are much government and registered primary schools and community schools to increase the education rate.
The first primary school is Kalachand School. Khulna Zilla School was built in 1885 and Brajalal College in 1902. The trade plays a vital role in the education of the city. So, it is a hub of many important colleges and universities.
Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET) is the most reputable institution in this region. It is the only engineering university in this Division. It has a public university called Khulna University. This university doesn’t allow student politics.
Other important educational institutions in this city are:
- Khulna Medical College
- Khulna Agricultural University
- North Western University
- Azam Khan Government Commerce College
- Khulna Public college
Health and welfare: The health condition and system
You know health care signifies the development and progress of a nation. In Khulna, there are many health care hospitals and clinics. Most of them are in the center of the city.
Yet, people of rural areas are deprived of modern health facilities. They have to come to the main city to get treatment.
Anyway, some notable hospitals in this area are:
- Khulna Medical College and Hospital
- Shaheed Sheikh Abu Naser specialized Hospital
- Khulna Shishu Hospital
- Khulna T.B Hospital
- Khulna City Medical College Hospital
- Islami Bank hospital
- N.S.B Eye Hospital, etc. Eye Hospital, etc.
Tourism: Main attractions of the Division
Khulna division is not behind the other cities of Bangladesh. Lots of historical places and landmarks invite tourists to visit them. The city will not disappoint you anymore; instead, you will go back with an exciting remembrance.
Now, find the top attractions in this region below:
Sundarbans, located in major parts of Bangladesh, is the largest tidal forest in Asia. You will get it in the southwest part of Bangladesh, Khulna. The rest portion is in India. Sundarban has worldwide fame as the largest mangrove forest. The area of the forest with sandbars is 414259 ha. It has been declared as the UNESCO World Heritage site.
This swamp forest is a blessing for Bangladeshis. It has a large contribution in the economy of Bangladesh. This jungle is the only source of forest produce in this region. Wood-based industries get raw materials from this forest. Sundarbans ecosystem is the source of employment and income for the coastal people. It works as a natural protection for the life of coastal crowds.
Anyway, the natural beauties of Sundarbans are fantastic to enjoy. The main floras of this jungle are Sudari, Keora, Goran, Gewa, and Golpata. People say the name of Sundarban has come from the Sundari tree.
The wildlife of the Sundarbans looks like a small zoo. There is an abundance of tigers, deers, monkeys, reptiles, etc. It is the home of the world-famous Royal Bengal Tiger. Spotted deer of these forests look amazing.
If you row with boats, you will see frequent movement of crocodiles. The forest is also a safe place for many birds. Plenty of migrant birds come in winter in this area.
Sundarban is the best tourist destination for tour lovers. The transport system is available from Khulna to Sundarbans. Find out different forest animals though tiger seeing is rare. One can have fresh coconut water to refresh. August-March is the best time to visit here.
Some important places to visit in Sundarbans are:
- Dublar char
- Jamatola beach
- Kotka beach
- Joymoni jelegram
Khan Jahan Ali Mazar:
This is the place of Khan Jahan Ali’s grave. Local people call it the Dargah complex of Saint Khan Jahan Ali. It is situated in Bagerhat district, Khulna. He was a famous saint in the 15th century. He preached in the area during the realm of Khalifalabad.
This Mazar has two structures. One is the tomb, and another one is a mosque. The tomb is on the right side of Dargah. People believe that there is a grave of Khan Jahan inside the tomb.
One can see a pond in front of the tomb. It looks like a lake. There are some marsh crocodiles in it. People found them till 2005. No species are left anymore. There is a mosque in the west part of Mazar. It is the same in size and shape.
Khan Jahan Ali died on 25 October, 459 AD, recorded from a tombstone. He made this mausoleum before his death. Muhammad Tahir’s tomb is just to the Mazar. He was a favorite and trusted high official of the saint Ali. Try to visit this Mazar and feel blessed.
Come from Khulna to Bagerhat. Visit this complex and feel peace.
The Rupsha River is famous in the southwestern part of Bangladesh.
It is one of the famous rivers of the country. This River starts from the association of the rivers Bhairab and Madhumati. Then it runs into the River Pasur.
One can find many fisheries, shipyards, factories, and dockyards on the shore of the River. People catch fish in the River. They are dependent on it.
There is a long, famous bridge over the Rupsha River. It connects the two districts of the Khulna Division.
This River is an excellent place for tourists to travel. Many people come to see the beauty of the Rupsha River on holidays. One can take a boat to travel in the River. Fruit shops are available on Rupsha Chat. You can buy fresh fruits from there.
This place is one of the famous historical places in Bangladesh. You will see it in Kustia, Khulna Division. Shilaidah Kuthibari holds historical importance for the world poet Rabindranath Tagore.
Poet Rabindranath used it as his residence. He wrote many of his masterpieces from here. He used to come here to meet with the villagers.
Kuthibari was a village home of Rabindranath built by his father. The pyramid-shaped building occupies a total of 11 acres. It is a three-storied wonderful building.
Now, it preserves the memory of the first Bengali Nobel laureate. The place is clean and well planned. Shilaidaha kuthibari is a nice place for a day-long trip in this Division.
Sixty Domed Mosque:
Don’t miss visiting this place if you travel to Khulna. It is one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites in Bangladesh. You will have to go to the mosque city Bagerhat to find it.
The famous saint Khan Jahan Ali built it in the 15th century. The Sixty Domes is the biggest and legendary mosque in Bangladesh. It keeps its superiority over the sultanate of Bengal till now.
Though the mosque’s name is sixty domed mosques, it has a total of 81 domes. Seven rows contain 77 domes, and each corner also has one dome. Regional people call the mosque Shat Gambus Mosque.
The Sixty Domed Mosque represents the glorious archeological artistry of the Bengal Sultanate. You have to go 5 km far from Bagerhat to reach there.
Explore more places to visit in Khulna from below:
- Rabindranath Complex
- Hiron Point
- Khulna Museum
- 1971: Genocide-torture Archive and Museum
- Mongla Port
- Nine Dome Mosque, etc.
FAQ, Khulna For Important
Khulna is mainly famous for the Sundarbans, in this Sundarbans you can see the world-famous Royal Bengal Tiger Chitra deer. Also, the natural beauty of the Sundarbans will surely fascinate you. It cannot be that a traveler is not fascinated by the Sundarbans.
Khulna has a total of 10 districts, each of which is rich and famous for some reason. The districts are Bagerhat, Jessore, Satkhira, Jhenaidah, Magura, Kushtia, Chuadanga, Meherpur, Narail, and Khulna
Transportation from Dhaka to Khulna is very good, you can go to Khulna at low cost or high-cost vehicles as much as you can. You can get 24 hours buses to Khulna from several bus terminals including Gabtali Sayedabad in Dhaka. You can also go to Khulna by plane, Railway, private car or by water. If you want to go to Khulna by plane then you have to go to Jessore by domestic flight from Jessore to Khulna.
Khulna district has nine Upazila
History, education, and art have a significant role in Khulna. This is also an industrial and commercially important city of Bangladesh. People call this place, Rupali City, for white fish cultivation.
The country’s second-biggest seaport is situated here. Everyday many people visit this city for business purposes. So, it is one of the busiest cities in the country.
The games and sports have exceptional contributions to the citizens of this area. It is the home of Football myth Zahirul Islam. This Division is also the birthplace of cricket legend Shakib Al Hasan.
Even so, Khulna is not as famous as Dhaka or Chittagong. But, I promise that you will feel ‘wow’ after traveling to this city. At last, you have got all the information about Khulna city from here. Now you decide to come and run away in the deep green forest of Khulna.